The Disability Continuum
There is no universally accepted meaning for the work “disability”. However, the Ontario Human Rights Code provides deﬁnitions of disability that form our guiding principles. Definitions of disability can be placed on a continuum. At one end, disability is explained in terms of medical conditions (medical model). At the opposite end, disability is explained in terms of the social and physical contexts in which it occurs (environmental model).
The medical model focuses on deﬁciencies, symptoms and treatments. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) 1976 deﬁnition for disability, for example, is “any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.” Medical model deﬁnitions promote the idea that disability is a deviation from the norm.
Many people with disabilities are troubled by deﬁnitions that regard disability as abnormal, preferring instead to portray disability as commonplace, natural, and in fact, inevitable. As people age, they experience gradual declines in visual acuity, auditory sensitivity, range of motion, bodily strength and mental powers.
Signiﬁcant functional limitations aﬀect almost half of people between the ages of 55 and 79, and over 70% of people over 80 (World Health Organization (WHO) report titled “Ageing and health”, 2015). Beyond middle age, disability is the norm. The environmental model explains disability in relation to social and physical contexts. In this view, the environment, not an individual’s medical condition, causes disability. For example, during an electrical blackout, a person who is completely blind can eﬀortlessly navigate around the home, hammer nails, and, if a Braille user, read a novel.
A sighted person would be unable to perform these tasks easily, if at all. In this example, the environment disables the sighted person.
The environmental model emphasizes that people with disabilities are capable individuals, and it is the barriers in the built and human environments, not their medical conditions, that create disability. Disability occurs when the world is designed only for a certain way of living, without considering the natural variation among human beings. Barriers are created by humans, and modifying how we live, the tools we use, and our understanding of the proper way to do things can eliminate or minimize design problems that cause barriers. Systematic barriers can be eliminated by modifying policies, plans, and processes. Attitudes that cause barriers can be addressed through disability awareness, respect, and positive interactions with people with disabilities.
Types of Disability and Functional Limitations
A person’s disability may make it physically or cognitively challenging to perform everyday tasks such as operating a keyboard, reading a sign, diﬀerentiating colours, distinguishing sounds, climbing stairs, grasping small items, remembering words, or doing arithmetic.
There are many kinds of disabilities, including physical, sensory, hearing, mental health, developmental and learning. Disabilities can be visible or invisible.
- Visual Disabilities
- Hard of Hearing and Deafness
- Physical Disabilities
- Intellectual Disabilities
- Learning or Cognitive Disabilities
- Mental Health Disabilities
- Speech and Language Disabilities
- Deaf-Blind Disabilities